Bibliography for Ancient Near Eastern Hells


Studies & Reference

Related Topics


Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. James B. Pritchard, ed. Third Edition with Supplement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969. Contains “The Vision of Kummâ.”

Bernstein, Alan E. The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993, 1–18.

Coogan, Michael David, ed and trans. Stories from Ancient Canaan. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978. Contains “Baal and the Underworld.”

Dalley, Stephanie, ed. Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, The Flood, Gilgamesh and Others. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. Contains “Huluppu Tree” from The Epic of Gilgamesh, and “The Descent of Ishtar.”

Gardiner, Eileen, ed. Ancient Near Eastern Hell: Visions, Tours and Descriptions of the Infernal Otherworld. Second Edition. New York: Italica Press, 2013. Contains “The Dream of Enkido” and “The Huluppu Tree” from the Epic of Gilgamesh, The Descent of Inanna to the Netherworld, Baal and the Underworld, the Descent of Ishtar and the Vision of Kummâ. Includes an introduction, notes, bibliography and glossary.

Lambert, W.G. “A New Babylonian Descent to the Netherworld.” In Lingering Over Words: Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Literature in Honor of William M. Moran. Edited by Tzvi Abusch, John Huehnegard, and Piotr Steinkeller, 289–300. Harvard Semitic Studies 37. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990.

Sandars, N. K. The Epic of Gilgamesh: An English Version with an Introduction. Baltimore: Penguin, 1960. Contains “The Dream of Enkidu” from The Epic of Gilgamesh.

Sladek, William R. “Inanna’s Descent to the Netherworld.” Ph.D. Diss, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1974.

Wyatt, N. Religious Texts from Ugarit. London: Sheffiled Academic Press, 2002, 123-26. Contains “Baal and the Underworld.”

Studies & Reference

American Schools of Oriental Research. Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Eric M. Meyers, ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Campbell, Stuart & Anthony Green, eds. Archaeology of Death in the Ancient Near East. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1995.

Casey, John. After Lives: A Guide to Heaven, Hell and Purgatory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009, 43–64.

Gardiner. Ancient Near Eastern Hell. Includes an introduction, notes, a bibliography and a glossary.

Katz, Dina. The Image of the Netherworld in the Sumerian Sources. Bethesda, MD: CDL Press, 2003.

Related Topics

About Ancient Near Eastern Hell
Ancient Near Eastern Texts
Ancient Near Eastern Images

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rev. 10/19/2020